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Spanish Colonial Mexico
(Nueva España)

Last Update: 12 May 1997

bullet1790 Statistics Charts
bulletSpanish Colonial System of Government
bulletEarly Settlements, The First Hundred Years
bulletViceroys of New Spain 1535-1800

Spanish Colonial System of Government

 

bulletThe Crown (Rey)
bulletViceroy (Virrey)
bulletGovernor (Gobernador)
bulletMayor (Alcalde)
bulletCaptain (Capitan)

Early Settlements
The First Hundred Years

Typically when a city was founded it's boundaries were set by the central government. Smaller towns in the city's vicinity fell under it's jurisdiction.

Date of Conquest
or Founding
Name of Settlement Founder
1519 Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz 230-81 Hernán Cortez
13 Aug 1521 Conquest of Mexico (Tenochtitlán) 230-292 Hernán Cortez
Oct 1521 Medellin (Tuxtepec) 230-300 Gonzalo de Sandoval
Fall-Winter 1521 Espírito Santo (Coatzacoalcos, Vera Cruz) 230-300 Gonzalo de Sandoval
Fall-Winter 1521 Ciudad de Oaxaca
The original Spanish settlement in the area was named Antequera. Later it merged with the Indian settlement of Oaxaca 230-300
Juan Nuñez de Mercado 233-38
1521/1522 Villa de Colima 230-303, 236-4 Gonzalo de Sandoval
22 Jan 1522 San Esteban del Puerto (Panuco, Vera Cruz
located just southwest of Tampico, Tamaulipas
Original capitol of Panuco 230-307 233-98, 236-4
Hernán Cortez
Dec 1527 Villa Real (San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas) 236-5 Diego de Mazariegos
1528 Salamanca (Chichen Itza) Abandoned 233-435 Francisco de Montejo
1528 Villa Real (Chetumal) 233-436,7 Alonso de Avila
1530 Puebla de los Angeles (Puebla, Puebla) 233-333 Hernando de Saavedra
29 Sep 1531 Culiacan, Sinaloa 236-14 Various
1531 Queretaro 236-13 Indios Otomies
Dec 1531 Espirito Santo de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela (Guadalajara, Jalisco)
Original capitol of New Galicia 233-366
Juan de Oñate
Antonio de Mendoza
1540 San Francisco de (Campeche) 233-445 Francisco de Montejo (Younger)
23 Apr 1541 Valladolid (Morelia, Michoacan) 236-18  
1542 Merida
Established on Indian settlement of Tihoo 233-447
Francisco de Montejo (Younger)
28 May 1543 Valladolid 233-447 Francisco de Montejo (Younger)
1544 Salamanca
Second settlement by this name in the Province of Yucatan 233-447
Gaspar Pacheco
29 Jan 1548 Nuestra Señora de (Zacatecas) 233-554, 236-22 Cristobal de Oñate, Baltazar Tremiño de Banuelos, Diego de Ibarra, Juan de Tolosa
1550 Acapulco
An older Indian settlement, the capitol of Cohuix had been visited by explorers sent by Cortez to the south coast. 233-420
 
1550 Matehuala, San Luis Potosi 236-22 Cayetano Medellin
1554 San Miguel el Grande (S. M. Allende, Guanajuato) 233-545, 236-22 Luis de Velasco
1554 San Felipe, Guanajuato Luis de Velasco
1554 Guanajuato 233-596, 236-22  
1554 Sain Alto, Zacatecas 236-23 Francisco de Ibarra
29 Sep 1554 San Miguel, Zacatecas 236-23 Francisco de Ibarra
1554 (1560) Villa de San Luis de Tampico Fray Andrés de Olmos
1561 Fresnillo, Zacatecas 236-24 Antonio Maldonado
8 Jul 1563 Guadiana (Durango) 236-25 Francisco de Ibarra
1569 Jerez, Zacatecas 236-28 Pedro Carrillo, Pedro Caldera, Martin Moreno
1574 Charcas Viejas (Sta. Maria de las Charcas) Francisco Ruiz
1575 Aguascalientes 233-762 Juan de Montoro
1576 San Luis Potosi 233-763 Luis de Leixa
1577 San Estevan (Saltillo, Coahuila) 236-29 Alberto del Canto
1578 Parras, Coahuila 236-30 Francisco de Urdinola
12 Apr 1582 Leon (Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon) Luis de Carbajal y la Cueva
1583 Villa de San Luis 236-34 Luis de Carbajal y la Cueva
1588/89 Concepcion del Oro, Zacatecas Francisco de Urdinola
1592 Villa de San Luis Potosi 236-28 Miguel Caldera
20 Sep 1596 Monterrey, Nuevo Leon 236-51 Diego de Montemayor
1598 Parras, Chihuahua 231-14  
1614 Guadalcazar, San Luis Potosi  
April 1618 Córdoba, Vera Cruz 231-27  

Viceroys of Mexico (New Spain)
1535-1800

Name

Date Appointed

1. Antonio de Mendoza 230-405

April 17, 1535

2. Luis de Velasco 230-406

1551

3. Gaston de Peralta
Marqués de Falces

October 19, 1566

4. Martin Enriquez de Almanza

November 5, 1568

5. Lorenzo Suarez de Mendoza
Conde de la Coruña

October 4, 1580

6. Pedro de Moya
Archbishop of Mexico

September 25, 1584

7. Alonso Manrique de Zuniga
Marqués de Villamanrique

October 18, 1585

8. Luis de Velasco the younger
Conde de Santiago
Son of 2nd Viceroy

1590

9. Gaspar de Zuniga y Acebedo
Conde de Monterrey

October 5, 1595

10. Juan Manuel Hurtado de Mendoza y Luna
Marqués de Montesclaros 231-5

September, 1603

11. Luis de Velasco the younger
Conde de Santiago
Son of 2nd Viceroy
Marqués de Salinas (1609) 231-19

July 7, 1607
thru
June 12, 1611

12. Archbishop Garcia Guerra 231-21

June 19, 1611

13. Diego Fernandez de Córdoba
Marques de Guadalcásar

October 28, 1612

14. Diego Carrillo de- Mendoza y Pimentel
Conde de Priego
Marqués de Gelves
231-34

September 21, 1621

15. Rodrigo Pacheco y Osorio
Marques de Cerralvo
Governor of Galicia
231-74/75
November 3, 1624
16. Lope Diez de Armendariz
Marques de Cadereita 231-94
September 16, 1635
17. Diego Lopez Pacheco Cabrera y Bobadilla
Duque de Escalona
Marques de Villena
231-98
August 28, 1640
18. Juan de Palafox y Mendoza
Bishop of Puebla
Archibishop of Mexico 231-110
June 10, 1642
19. Garcia Sarmiento de Sotomayor
Conde de Salvatierra
Marques de Sabroso
231-113
October 1642
20. Marcos de Torres y Rueda
Bishop of Yucatan 231-137
13 May 1648
21. Luis Enriquez de Guzman
Conde de Alva de Liste
Marques de Villaflor
231-139
May 1650
22. Francisco Fernandez de la Cueva
Duque de Alburquerque 231-142
14 Aug 1653
23. Juan de Leiva y de la Cerda
Marques de Leiva y de Ladrada
Conde de Baños
231-164
16 Sep 1660
24. Diego Osorio de Escobar y Llamas
Archbishop of Mexico 231-166
July 1664
25. Antonio Sebastian de Toledo, Molina y Salazar
Marques de Mancera 231-169
15 Oct 1664
26, Pedro Nuñez Colon de Portugal
Duque de Veraguas y de la Vega
Marques de Jamaica
231-181
8 Dec 1673
27. Fray Payo Enriquez de Rivera
Archbishop of Mexico 231-182
Early 1674
28. Tomas Antonio de la Cerda
Conde de Paredes
Marques de la Laguna
231-190
Nov 1680
29. Melchor Portacarrero, Lasso de la Vega
Conde de Monclova 231-221
30 Nov 1686
30. Gaspar de la Cerda Sandoval Silva y Mendoza
Conde de Galve 231-222
Nov 1688
31. Juan de Ortega Montañez
Bishop of Michoacan 231-256
27 Feb 1696
32. Jose Sarmiento Valladares
Conde de Montezuma 231-259
Oct 1697
33. Juan de Ortega Montañez
Bishop of Michoacan 231-268
29 Jan 1702
34. Duque de Alburquerque (The Younger)
Marques de Cuellar
Conde de Ledesma y Huelma
231-278
Oct 1702
35. Fernando de Alancastre, Marona y Silva
Duque de Linares
Marques de Valdafuentes
231-285
15 Jan 1711
36. Baltasar de Zuniga
Marques de Valero
Duque de Arion
231-290
16 Aug 1716
37. Juan de Acuña
Marques de Casafuerte 231-349
15 Oct 1722
38. Juan Antonio de Vizarron y Eguiarreta
Archbishop of Mexico 231-351
13 Jan 1730
39. Pedro de Castro y Figueroa Salazar
Duque de la Conquista
Marques de Gracia Real
231-354
17 Aug 1740
40. Pedro Cebrian y Agustin
Conde de Fuenclara 231-355
3 Nov 1742
41. Juan Francisco de Guemes y Horcasitas
Conde de Revilla Gigedo 231-358
9 Jul 1746
42. Agustin de Ahumada y Villalon
Marques de las Amarillas 231-360
10 Nov 1755
43. Francisco Cagigal de la Vega
Governor or Habana 231-360
28 Apr 1760
44. Joaquin Monserrat
Marques de Cruillas 231-364
9 May 1760
45. Carlos Francisco de Croix
Marques de Croix 231-368
25 Aug 1766
46. Fray Antonio Maria Bucareli y Ursua
Lieutenant General of the Royal Armies 231-370
23 Sep 1771
47. Martin de Mayorga
Governor of Guatemala 231-381
23 Aug 1779
48. Matias de Galvez, Garcia, Madrid y Cabrera
Lieutenant Governor of the Royal Armies 231-386
29 Aug 1783
49. Bernardo de Galvez, Madrid, Cabrera, Ramirez y Marquez
Conde de Galvez 231-393
June 1785
50. Alonso Nuñez de Haro y Peralta
Archbishop of Mexico 231-456
8 May 1787
51. Manuel Antonio Flores
Vice Admiral of the Royal Navy 231-464
17 Aug 1787
52. Juan Vicente de Guemes Pacheco de Padilla
Conde de Revilla Gigedo (The Younger) 231-473
16 Oct 1789
53. Miguel de la Grua y Branciforte
Marques de Branciforte 231-485
July 1794
54. Miguel Jose de Azanza 31 May 1798

Last Updated: August 30, 2002


This is a work in progress.

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